Jat History

Ancient History: Bhim Singh Dahiya states that the Jat people find a mention in Mahabharata and other ancient Indian literature. Mahendra Singh Arya etal believe that the shloka Jat Jhat Sanghate in famous Sanskrit scholar Panini's Astadhyayi refers to the Jat people as a federation. G. C. Dwivedi writes that the Persian Majmal-ut-Tawarikh mentions Jats and Meds as the descendants of Ham, living in Sind on the banks of the river Bahar. S.M. Yunus Jaffery believes that the Jat people have been mentioned in Shāhnāma, a well-known Persian epic.
Ancient Jat Rular: The Kaikan region in Sind was in independent possession of the Jat people. In addition to frequent interaction with Jats, the first Arab invasions of Persia and Sindh were met by the Jat people. According to Thakur Deshraj and Cunningham, Jat people of the Panwar clan ruled Umerkot in Sind prior to Mughal ruler Humayun. the Susthan region in Sindh was ruled by Chandra Ram, a Jat of Hala clan. Chandra Ram lost his kingdom to the Muslim invaders sent by Muhammad bin Qasim. In the beginning of fifth century, there is evidence of the Jat ruler Maharaja Shalinder ruling from "Shalpur" (the present-day Sialkot); his territory extended from Punjab to Malwa and Rajasthan.
There were several small Jat states in what is now Rajasthan. The Bikaner region (then known as Jangladesh) in the desert region of Western India was dominated by the Jat people. At what period the Jat people established themselves in the Indian desert is not known. By the 4th century they had spread up to Punjab in India. The small Jat population in the region were Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs and largely governed by their own customary law. There were several Jat rulers of small areas in North India. These included the Garhwals of Garhmukteshwar, Kaliramnas (who ruled near Mathura), Khirwars of Brij and Narsinghpur, Nauhwars (who ruled the area surrounding the Noh lake area near Mathura), Koīls of Kampilgarh (the area that is now Aligarh), Halas, Kuntals, Pachars, Thenuas, Toouts, and Thakureles. The Jat people also dominated the Malwa region, under rulers like Harshavardhana, Shiladitya, Singhavarma, Vishnuvardhan, and Yasodharman.
Rise of Jat Power: In 1699, the Jat people of the Gokula region around Mathura rebelled against the powerful Mughal rulers.The rebellion resulted from political provocation aggravated by the economic discontent, and further aggravated by the religious persecution and discrimination.
In the disorder following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Jat resistance resumed, organized under the leadership of Churaman (1695–1721). Churaman's nephew, Badan Singh (1722–1756), established a kingdom centered at Deeg, from which he extended his rule over Agra and Mathura. Badan Singh's eldest son and successor, Maharaja Suraj Mal (1707–1763), extended his kingdom to include Agra, Mathura, Dholpur, Mainpuri, Hathras, Aligarh, Etawah, Meerut, Rohtak (including Bhiwani), Farrukhnagar, Mewat, Rewari and Gurgaon. He has been described as one of the greatest Jat rulers. Suraj Mal moved the capital from Deeg to Bharatpur in 1733.
In the 10th century, the Jat people took control of Dholpur, which had earlier been ruled by the Rajputs and the Yadavs. Dholpur was taken by Sikandar Lodhi in 1501, who transferred it to a Muslim governor in 1504. In 1527, the Dholpur fort fell to Babur and continued to be ruled by the Mughals until 1707. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dholpur, and his family retained it until 1761. After that, Dholpur was taken successively by the Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur;
Ballabhgarh was another important princely state established by the Jat people of the Tewatia clan, who had come from Janauli village. Balram Singh, the brother-in-law of Maharaja Suraj Mal was the first powerful ruler of Ballabhgarh. Raja Nahar Singh (1823–1858) was another notable king of this princely state. The Jat people also briefly ruled at Gwalior and Agra. The Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (1707-1756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (1757-1782) occupied the Gwalior fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, and Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774.